The response rate was Damage and costs to institutions are likely to be substantial, but this claim remains largely an inference based on current studies.
Future research efforts should test interactive and mediating models of multiple risk factors and address developmental processes. Sebeliusthough upholding South Dakota v.
This article categorizes and describes current media campaigns to reduce college student drinking, reviews key principles of campaign design and outlines recommendations for future campaigns. The preponderance of evidence indicates there is an inverse relationship between the MLDA and two outcome measures: There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption.
Faculty could theoretically provide a positive influence on student drinking behavior, but there is little evidence in the literature that faculty norms and expectations about avoiding alcohol misuse are effectively communicated to students. This review focused on English-language papers published over the past several decades.
These misperceived norms, in turn, have a significant negative effect promoting and exacerbating problem drinking. A second pattern of drinking associated with negative emotional states is also documented.
Comprehensive searches of four databases were conducted to identify empirical studies of the MLDA published from to There is mixed support for values clarification and normative reeducation approaches.
History[ edit ] Legislation concerning the legal minimum drinking age in the United States can be traced back to the days of Prohibition. The article describes three types of media campaigns on student drinking: This article reviews the literature on adolescent brain development and considers the impact of these neural alterations on the propensity to use and misuse alcohol.
In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. Integration between campus policies and individually oriented prevention approaches is recommended.
Parental norms have only modest impact on students once they enter college beyond the residual effects of previously instilled drinking attitudes and religious traditions.
This article provides a review of conceptual and empirical studies on the role of social norms in college student alcohol use and in prevention strategies to counter misuse.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism NIAAA took special interest in this issue, and compiled a list of recommendations for colleges to implement in order to combat underage drinking on campus.
As shown in a selective review of empirical studies, these transitions offer important vantage points for examining increasing and decreasing alcohol and other drug use during adolescence and young adulthood. Yet many underage people still drink, many drink and drive, and alcohol remains an important risk factor in serious crashes of young drivers, especially as they progress through the teenage years.
We identified empirical analyses of the MLDA. Some long-term consequences of this second pattern have been described. Other prevention efforts directed specifically at college students might focus on helping them to identify risky situations that might facilitate the expression of intoxicated aggression.
Global associations test whether individuals who engage in one behavior are more likely to engage in the other, whereas event-specific associations test whether the likelihood of engaging in one behavior on a given occasion varies as a function of engaging in the other on that same occasion.
Several factors have been shown to relate to drinking: Permissiveness and problem behaviors among peers are overestimated, even in environments where problem drinking rates are relatively high in actuality. The typology is grounded in a social ecological framework, which recognizes that health-related behaviors are affected through multiple levels of influence: As of this writing, only one major media campaign has focused on policy advocacy to reduce college student drinking, but it is still being evaluated.
These features of the adolescent brain may also increase the sensitivity of adolescents to stressors, further escalating their propensity to initiate alcohol use. We review normative developmental transitions of adolescence and young adulthood, focusing on the domains of physical and cognitive development, identity, affiliation and achievement.
Further research is needed to evaluate effects of alcohol control policies on alcohol consumption and its related problems among college students. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the research literature on alcohol-related aggression with a focus on college students.The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of (23 U.S.C.
§ ) was passed by the United States Congress on July 17, It was a controversial bill that punished every state that allowed persons below 21 years to purchase and publicly possess alcoholic beverages by reducing its annual federal highway apportionment by 10 percent.
The. Long-term effects of minimum legal drinking age laws on marijuana and other illicit drug use in adulthood Author links open overlay panel Melissa J.
Krauss a Patricia A. Cavazos-Rehg a Arpana Agrawal b Laura J. Bierut a Richard A. Grucza a. JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL / SUPPLEMENT NO. 14, Effects of Minimum Drinking Age Laws: Review and Analyses of the Literature from to Minimum legal drinking ages around the world vary dramatically.
Most such laws apply only to drinking alcoholic beverages in public locations. The only country with a minimum legal age for consuming alcohol at home is the United Kingdom, which prohibits drinking below the age of six.
Expand Effects of Minimum Drinking Age Laws: Review and Analyses of the Literature from to ABSTRACT. Objective: The goal of this article is to review critically the extant minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) research literature and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of this policy.
Typically, these laws prohibit driving with a BAC of % or greater. The zero tolerance and minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws are the primary legal countermeasures against underage drinking and driving in the United States.Download